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The purpose of the conference is to bring together representatives of the State water pollution con- trol agency, representatives of the U. Stein 4 and industries an opportunity to take any indicated re- medial action under State and local law. This is a conference between the official State water pollution control agency of Michigan and representatives of the U.

Department of Health, Educa- tion, and Welfare. The Michigan Water Resources Commission may bring whomever it wishes to the conference and have them participate in the conference. However, only the representatives of the Michigan Water Resources Commission and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare constitute the conferees.

The State of Michigan has designated as its conferee for the conference Mr. Oeming has several of his commission members and others with him as consultants. I wonder if you would introduce them at this point, Mr. Stein 5 consultants to the State conferee. Starting at your left, Mr. Lynn Baldwin, who represents conservation groups on the Water Resources Commission. Next is Mr. Al Balden, who is an alternate for Jim Gilmore, representing industrial-management groups on the commission. Next is George Liddle, who represents muni- cipal groups on the commission.

And, last, Dr. Ralph MacMullan, Director of Conservation. Foston, on my right, of the Depart- ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, who is the Regional Program Director for this region, with headquarters in Chicago, has been designated as conferee for the Federal Government. Stein 6 My name is Murray Stein. I am from Washington, D. Both the States and the Federal Government have responsibilities in dealing with water pollution problems. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act declares that the primary responsibilities and rights for control- ling water pollution rest with the State.

Consistent with this, we are charged by law to encourage State action to abate pollution of navigable waters. However, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare also is charged by law with specific responsibilities in the field of water pollution control, as pollution of navigable waters which endangers the health or welfare of any person is subject to abatement in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Act.

A first session of this conference was held March 27th and 28th, , in Detroit. Stein 7 Control Act in the matter of pollution of the navigable waters of the Detroit River and its tributaries within the State of Michigan, and Lake Erie and its tributaries within the State of Michigan. In light of conference discussions, the con- ferees unanimously agreed to the following conclusions and recommendations: 1. Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, and Lake Erie, and their tributaries. The discharges causing and contributing to the pollution come from various industrial and municipal sources.

This pollution causes deleterious condi- tions so as to interfere with legitimate water uses, including municipal and industrial water supplies, fisheries resources, commercial and sport fishing, swimming, water skiing, pleasure boating and other forms of recreation. The Conference dis- cussions demonstrate that there are many gaps in our knowledge of sources of pollution and their effects. Cognizance is taken of the program of the Michigan Water Resources Commission for development of adequate pollution control measures on a progressive basis and the excellent progress being made by many municipalities and industries under this program.

Delays encountered in abating the pollution may well be caused by the existence of a municipal and industrial complex concentrated in an area with a limited water resource. The conferees are also aware of the vast problems that Detroit faces as a result of the storm water outflow from a system of combined sewers. The problem thus be- comes one of approaching the entire area on a coordinated basis and putting in adequate facilities based on an over- all plan.

Cognizance is also taken of the six- county study as a useful approach to the solution of the pollution problem in the Detroit area. Stein 9 Welfare, in order to close the gaps in the knowledge as to sources of pollution, nature of pollution, and the effects thereof, appropriate methods of abatement, and appropriate methods to avoid delays in abatement, will initiate an investigation and study to gather data and information on the waters involved.

This investigation and study will be carried on in close cooperation with the State agencies concerned, with the details of the investigation to be determined by the technical staffs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Michigan Health De- partment and the Michigan Water Resources Commission. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare will estab- lish a resident survey group to provide technical assistance for this investigation.

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare will prepare reports on the progress of this in- vestigation at six month intervals which will be made available to the Michigan Water Resources Commission. The Michigan Water Resources Commission will make information contained in these reports available to all interested parties. Stein from the investigation and study, and to agree on action to be taken to abate pollution. We are now here three years later. The study has been made and has been completed. This second session of the Conference, we hope, will be useful in describing the problem clearly, in delineating the progress which has already been accomplished, and in indicating what still needs to be done to correct the pollution problems of the Detroit River and Michigan waters of Lake Erie.

It was evident during the study and investi- gation, and it was evidenced at the first session of the Conference, that the City of Detroit, other municipalities, and many of the industries in the area had done much to prevent water pollution. As has been pointed out many times, these cities and industries did have an active program. However, it was recognized that while they did have an active program, the Conferees did find that the waters covered by the Con- ference were in a polluted condition.

The task of the technical group was made con- siderably more difficult by having to go out and determine, with the present analyses, in all cases, which industries were and which industries were not providing adequate treat- ment, and, if so, how adequate they were. Stein As you will see when the report is presented, this is not a blanket indictment or a blanket improvement. We should bear in mind that we should give credit where credit is due, and recognize that as this country gets more complex, there are situations such as we find in Detroit, where you can't make a wide judgment applying to all cities and all industries, and as this develops you will see that considerable progress has been made.

You can imagine what the state of the river would be, for example, if Detroit did not have the active program that it has and had not had the waste collecting treatment system that it has, and 1 think the river is in the shape it is in now due to that effort, and we should give the City of Detroit that kind of credit. There is another point that should be made.

After this study, and we believe at least the investigators who made the study believe that they have uncovered the facts throughout the situation, we will try to get a con- cession on all facts here, and move forward based on these facts. Hope- fully, we will get an agreement on a factual basis. We need an agreement before we can move forward.

Now a word about the procedure governing the conduct of the Conference. The Conferees will be called upon to make statements. The Conferees, in addition, may call upon participants whom they invited to the Conference to make statements. At the conclusion of such statements, the Conferees will be given an opportunity to comment or ask questions, and at the conclusion of the Conferees' comments or questions, I may ask a question or two. This procedure has proven effective in the past in developing a clear statement of the problem and in reaching agreements on equitable solutions.

At the end of all statements, we will have a discussion among the Conferees and try to arrive at agree- ment on the facts of the situation. Then we will attempt to summarize the Conference orally, giving the Conferees, of course, the right to amend or modify the summary. Under the Federal law, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare is required, at the conclusion of the Conference, to prepare a summary of it which will be sent to all the Conferees.

Stein must include the following: 1. Occurrence of pollution in navigable waters subject to abatement under the Federal Act; 2. Adequacy of measures taken toward abate- ment of pollution; and 3. Natureof delays, if any, being encountered in abating the pollution. Subsequent to the Conference, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare is required to make recom- mendations for remedial action if such recommendations are indicated. In the past, when the Conferees are agreed unanimously on the recommendations, the Secretary has al- ways adopted those recommendations of the Conferees.

A record and verbatim transcript will be made of the Conference by Mr. Al Zimmer. Zimmer is making this transcript for the purpose of aiding us in preparing a summary, and also providing a complete record of what is said here. We will make copies of the summary and trans- cript available to the Michigan Water Resources Commission. We have found that, generally, for the purpose of maintain- ing relationships within a State, that the people who wish transcripts should request them through their State agency, rather than come directly to the Federal Government.

Stein who are interested in the problem to follow their normal relations in dealing with State agencies rather than the Federal Government on these matters when the Conference has been concluded. This has worked successfully in the past, and we will be most happy to make this material available to the State for distribution.

I would suggest that all speakers and par- ticipants, other than the Conferees, making statements come to the lectern and identify themselves for the purpose of the record. Those stairs coming up look a little more precipitous and rickety than they are. I think you will make it if you take a deep breath. The first person we would like to call on is indeed an old friend, and, from a technical person like myself who has been in this program for almost a quarter of a century, one of the national architects of the Federal program and indeed recognized, as I saw by one of your local papers a while ago, as Michigan's expert on water pollution control.

He has worked on all water pollution control measures since he has been in Congress. Stein contributed as much to the progress of water pollution control programs in the National Government and in the States as any man in the country today. The Honorable John D. Rising applause. Chairman, members of the Conference: For the record, my name is John D. Geographically, my district is perhaps the most critically and directly affected by the proceedings today, and by the pollution of the Detroit River, which is the subject matter of our conference.

It is too well documented and sufficiently well known for our purposes today. Dingell reasonable recommendations contained therein should be implemented forcefully and vigorously at the present time. Neither the City of Detroit, nor any other muni- cipalities or industries concerned have any God-given right to befoul the waters of the River, its tributaries, or Lake Erie. The people -I have the honor to represent have strong feelings on the subject of pollution of our Detroit River. To them it is a source of water for home and in- dustry.

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It is an area of recreation for hunting and fishing, although now much degraded, and was formerly a fine place for swimming. Its once pure waters were at one time the seat of a flourishing sport and commercial fishery. Today its commercial fishery is gone, and its sport fishery produces catches running more and more heavily to the less desirable species of fish.

Our fisher- men, with reason, complain of the taste of the fish, tainted with industrial and municipal wastes. Watercraft on the River are smeared with oil and pollutants; all too frequently, there are well docu- mented reports of duck kills, some of them massive, stemming from the pollution of our River. Dingell of the dying waters of our River.

Chairman, very frankly documents the obvious. Almost any of my constituents could tell us today, from their experience on the River and from the knowledge common to all in this area, that our River is grossly polluted. We are gathered together today to discuss what is to be done, indeed, what must be done! We know the sources of pollution, industrial and municipal. These are documented fully in the report. We have ample knowledge in the art of cleaning up the causes of the pollution such as exists in the Detroit Metropolitan Area.

Dingell our knowledge of finances and our resources to meet the clear need are sufficient. We must not be lacking in determination. I have heard the voices of only a very few men of limited knowledge and vision cry for the status quo, challenge the validity of the report, and attack the veracity and character of its authors. I report to you that this is not the attitude of the people of the Sixteenth District of Michigan, nor is it the thinking of the people of Southeast Michigan.

We in this area ask only that the matter be approached in the same reasonable and understanding manner as have other cities which have found themselves in the same position. Dingell speed, and when I say "deliberate," I mean deliberate and a growing effort. Our people recognize the pollution of our River from municipal and industrial discharge and the need for additional and improved treatment facilities.

That secondary treatment must be installed by the City of Detroit and other municipalities which utilize the River for disposal of their sewage effluent, no one seriously challenges. Our people agree that industry must spend more for construction and repair and for more careful and adequate operation of its waste treatment plants. We ask again, respectfully, Mr. Chairman, that only that time which is sufficient be afforded to city and industry for this cleanup. Our people ask that you consider, in fixing the time limits, the financial abilities of our industry to program the cost of what we all concede are badly needed improvements in waste handling.

This includes, of course, construction and improvement in our existing plants. Our people urge that you consider problems of the City of Detroit and of the other municipalities in financing the cost of secondary treatment. Unfortunately, its performance is no longer adequate to the needs of this time. What would serve a much smaller metropolitan area of the 's or 's is not adequate to the demands of a thirsty giant of a metropolitan area of the late 's. The knowledge of those earlier days as to water use, the methods of treat- ment, the hazards to our environment, the danger and destruction to fish and wildlife and recreational values have come a long way since the day when primary treatment by a city the size of Detroit was considered adequate.

It is no small task that we face in this area. Dingell the customers of the City of Detroit system will suffi- ciently support a proper schedule of constructing adequate facilities. In each case I believe on the basis of Detroit's services to its suburbs in sewage treatment, the area would qualify, under Public Law , for the larger, multiple city type grants. Dingell needs run to several hundred millions for the secondary treatment of municipal sewage, and a great deal more for elimination of combined storm and sanitary sewers and for abatement of industrial pollution.

I feel that the Conference should not con- sider, at this time, the problem of storm waters adding to the pollution of the River resulting from the inade- quately combined system of storm and sanitary drains of the City of Detroit. This would be too costly at the present time, and would, 1 believe, hinder completion of secondary treatment, which is more important and more economically feasible.

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The possibility of a breakthrough in this area, because of research stimulated by new Federal legislation, makes deferral of this problem both possible and desirable. It would seem preferable to me that this Conference continue jurisdiction over the Detroit River and its tributaries to assure a fair and expeditious cleanup. This kind of continuing supervision could assure reopening of the vexatious storm overflow problem at the appropriate time. Dingell fixing an equitable time and manner for a real cleanup in a way which will reasonably satisfy all concerned.

I believe that fine agency, under the able leadership of Mr. Oeming, with the strong backing of the Federal Government, has the technical ability and the inclination to do a good job.


This I believe was clearly demonstrated by Mr. Oeming1s recognition of the serious- ness of the pollution problem when he publicly praised the thoroughness of the Public Health Service Report. I am sure Mr. Oeming recognizes the respon- sibility which this entails. I am certain he knows that failure to carry out this high responsibility will result in the narrowing of the responsibility of the several States in the area of pollution abatement. Certainly, failure of Michigan's Water Resources Commission to meet this test will increase the pressure for more Federal action in this area.

Chairman, I have offered you no panacea and I have given no solution. I have simply stated sup- port of the people of my district for the incontrovertible findings of the excellent study of the Detroit River, which was completed so carefully by the Public Health Service. Secondary treatment is not only possible, but is economically feasible. It is also urgently needed. Dingell I have stated that this problem can be resolved by reason- able men with minimal cost to the many involved and with enormous benefit to all, and I find it is something which is made available in the case of about 70 percent of the municipalities in the country today, and I can see no reason why Detroit, through appointed officials, should discuss the need for special privileges.

Murray Stein, will manifest the order, reason, and fairness I have seen in similar proceedings. I only urge that the same fundamental philosophy of Pub- lic Law on whose original enactment 1 worked, and to which I have authored so many amendments, motivate all who are engaged in this program.

The benefits of cleaning up pollution of the Detroit River mean longer life to Lake Erie, pure water for municipalities, for industry, recreation, fish and wildlife, and will make this a better place to live for present and future generations. This is economically possible without undue hardship and dislocation to our people. I say, "Let us begin! Are there any comments or questions, Mr. Dingell Oeming? I have none. Chairman, have with me today the statement of my good friend and colleague from the 15th Congressional District, Congress- man William Ford, that I would like to present to the Conference at this time.

Congressman Ford is very much concerned with the pollution of the Detroit River, and I believe his suggestions and his support of the Conference which he states for consideration merit attention by this body. If they desire to have it read into the record, that will be appropriate, but I think it should be inserted at this point.

Oeming wants to hear it. If you wish, we can have someone read this for you. Dingell read it. A member of Mr. Ford's staff is here this morn- ing, and I am sure he would be happy to present it. STEIN: Before you leave though, I would like to comment that I think it is evident to all, by your analysis of the problem in this particular area, why Congressman Dingell is one of the nation's experts in water pollution control.

I add again, as a technical man who stands with his entire career in the field, as you can see, Congressman Dingell is very strongly for water pollution control in addition to the normal problems when he comes into his own district. This, to my mind, takes considerable fortitude and courage. Your point is well taken, sir, about putting an undue financial burden on anyone. As you know, our philosophy is to see whether we can have industries and municipalities, where appropriate, construct reasonable treatment methods and works without putting a burden on them or putting them out of their business.

Anyone can clean up pollution if you are going to put an industry out of business or close down a city. The challenge is to have industry maintain its competitiveness and allow the city to grow, and still have the water utilized for a maximum number of uses. Dingell This often takes adroit financial analyses and painstaking hard work, and, Congressman, this is a notion that is well taken. Chairman, that you have done this admirably in the con- ferences that you have conducted on many other rivers, and I think in some 34 cases, and I can see no reason why our people here have anything to fear from the enforce- ment of the Public Health Service.

You know, as we have pointed out before the Congress, we have had cases involving more than 1, industries and more than 1, cities, the industries and the cities ranging from the largest to the smallest. Only once have we been to court against one city. Never have we had to take an industry to court. I think this speaks of our philosophy. We measure our success by the solutions we arrive at at the conference table, rather than by the number of court actions we bring.

Dingell on the entire Lake Erie situation. As you know, if any Governor makes a request for an interstate action like that, we have no option and we must take it, so I guess we will maintain jurisdiction. I think Detroit is in an enviable position, because we do have a head start in Detroit and possibly we will be able to see our way clear to a solution.

The other areas involved in the Lake Erie situation may yet have to go through the travail and agony of evolving a program, and 1 think we are close to that in this area. Thank you very much. Chairman, A member of Congressman Ford's staff is here, and 1 am sure he would be more than pleased to read this. FORD, U. Ford from the 15th Congressional District. The statement I am about to read is the statement of the Congressman, and it reads as follows: Mr. Ford virtually surrounded by what is estimated to be, not only the largest fresh-water reservoir in the world, but a fresh-water system of lakes and rivers representing one- seventh of the total available supply in the world, we can quickly grasp the enormity of our respon s ib i1i tv for the future of this resource.

This very comprehensive analysis of the water pollution problem in the Detroit Metropolitan area and its effect on the Great Lakes, gives scientific and detailed support to facts concerning the pollution of our rivers and Lake Erie which have long been known to the residents df the area and people who have in recent years watched the consistent diminution of available fresh water for human consumption, swimming, boating and recreational uses, not to mention the effect on fish and wildlife.

Ford the Detroit River all of my life, and as a boy knew it to be not only the place from which our drinking water came, but a river lined with beaches used by many thousands of our people, and fished from Lake St. Glair to Lake Erie throughout the year. The people from my Congressional District who still use the lower Detroit River for recrea- tion, such as those owning small boats for fishing and pleasure boating, are painfully aware of the increasing sludge which chokes the lower Detroit River.

I have heard a neighbor say that "Putting your boat in the Detroit River is like dipping a casting in a bath of oil. The City of Detroit, which would not be where it is but for the existence of the deep and once clear waters of the Detroit River, contributes 95 percent of the municipal waste which goes into the Detroit River in its northern part, and becomes a principal source of pollution to all those downstream from the city.

Ford In years gone by, cities like Wyandotte, having water intakes in the Detroit River below the City of Detroit, have expressed deep concern for the increase in pollution which has in recent years made it necessary to dump ever-increasing amounts of chlorine into the water to make it potable, or at least passable. Therefore, it is indeed a strange anomaly to hear water officials from the City of Detroit attempt to minimize the problem of Detroit River pollution, and suggest that secondary sewage treatment, as recommended in the Public Health Service report, would be a waste of money.

Ford the present time, and if it continues will diminish the growth and development potential of the Detroit Metro- politan area by amounts that are astronomical and repre- sent literally thousands of times the cost of secondary sewage treatment by the City of Detroit. However, private industry certainly has an obligation to discontinue, or mitigate, the conditions which led them to contribute 1. As the report so clearly indicates, industry is polluting these waters "bacteriologically, chemically, physically and biologically.

As people walk about our Capitol in Washing- ton, one of the things that tourist guides call their attention to is the huge cast-iron dome in the center of the Capitol, which I am sure is familiar to every citizen of this country. Ford 35 structure is the guide's information that the dome weighs nine million pounds. Imagine then, if you will, what we are talk- ing about in terms of daily pollution in the Detroit River when you realize that every day six million pounds of waste products are discharged from United States industries and municipalities into the river, and twenty million pounds of waste goes from the United States waters of the Detroit River to the Michigan side of Lake Erie.

We are literally filling in Lake Erie with our own waste and, in so doing, not only jeopardizing our own health and future, but betraying the trust which we as caretakers of this national resource owe to everyone else. Stein, as the principal Federal officer charged with water pollution enforcement, 1 think will agree with me that no one wants to see the Federal Government assume complete control of enforcement and clean-up. Ford Congressman John D. Dingell 16th District, Michigan and I are actively supporting legislation which would increase Federal funds available to municipalities who are willing to undertake the construction of improved sewage treatment facilities for the purpose of water pol- lution abatement, as well as improving, generally, public health conditions.

However, Federal money alone will not do the job, and it will require a vigorous effort on the part of local officials to inform the public of the need for such facilities and to get projects started, which will result in their design and installation without fur- ther undue delay. The State of Michigan has had great diffi- culty in obtaining a water pollution law with teeth, and some of the industries named in the report I have men- tioned before have actively opposed enactment of legis- lation in Lansing that would strengthen the enforcement of anti-pollution measures.

We have been greatly encouraged by progress made in this session of the Michi- gan Legislature, and certainly do not believe that it is too early to act. Many of you know that the first conference on the Michigan waters of Lake Erie was called by the then Governor, John B.

Ford that as a result of that meeting, the United States Government, through several agencies, became involved in the activity which led to the study resulting in the re- port we have been discussing today. One might ask, however: Since that time in , when the Federal Government and the State of Michigan determined through its representatives to take bold steps for a solution, what has the State of Michigan done?

It might also be asked: What have the major industries, who must certainly have known in advance what the conclusions of this research would be, done to demonstrate that water pollution problems can be solved on a voluntary or coopera- tive basis without Federal Government coercion? It should be noted that most of the downriver and out-County communities of Wayne County have recently, entered into contracts obligating themselves to the ex- penditures of large amounts of money for the construction of new sewage treatment facilities, for sewage wastes coming from those communities.

We in the suburbs might very well ask: What has our neighbor, the City of Detroit, done as its share in this project? There is much discussion from time to time about the shift of responsibility for local problems to the Federal Government. Ford has been critical of this shift, has nevertheless suggested a real reason for it when he has said, on more than one occasion, that if the State fails to meet the needs of the people, people will turn to Washington for assistance. As a Congressman, I believe firmly that the question of a fresh water supply, and the availability of this supply as a national resource is clearly the proper subject of Federal legislation.

Further, I feel that there can be no more admirable expenditure of public funds than for the purpose of water pollution abatement.

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  • However, I truly hope that consistent with legislation we have already passed in this session of the 89th Congress, the Federal Government will lend its resources to an over-all citizen-business-government partnership in solving these problems. I am prepared to say, however, that if we continue to discuss these matters without demonstrating a genuine effort on the part of the people responsible for pollution to abate these conditions, I will vigor- ously support any Federal legislation for the enforcement of pollution abatement that will make up for this lack of enlightened cooperation by the people most directly involved.

    Ford present this statement, and please accept my sincere best wishes to everyone participating in this Conference, in the hope that it will be a successful effort in the war against pollution. Thank you, Mr. Do you have any comments or questions, Mr. I would like to comment on one of the ques- tions that is raised in Congressman Ford's statement as to what has been done or what has transpired during this two or three year period that the study has been going on.

    So, I think this question will be answered at this Conference, that there were so many things done, and this Conference will bring those out. Ford MR. Since he has been in Congress, and he is a relatively new member, he has been consistently interested in water pollution control and has taken hold of this subject, and he seems to have quite a background. We appreciate his contribution, MR. I will convey your message.

    We first had the opening remarks, and next the appearances of members of Congress. Congressman Vivian, who we expected might be here, I think may very well have been delayed or called somewhere else in con- nection with the reception for the astronauts. Ford Congressional delegation. However, we are now going to have the Report on Pollution of the Detroit River by the Federal repre- sentatives. Then, after that, we will have a recess for lunch.

    We will reconvene at , when we expect to have appearances by Governor Romney, and the Governors of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York, and the Premier of Ontario, who he has invited to attend. Perhaps one of them will appear and make a statement. We will then resume the presenta- tion of the report, and we will hope to recess at about Tomorrow morning, if the report has not been completed today, we will continue with that, and then have clarifying questions by the conferees.

    If the report is completed this afternoon, we will start with the clarifying questions, after which we will have appearances of other invited Federal agencies, such as the Corps of Engineers, Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. We will then have the same luncheon recess tomorrow, following which we will have a presentation of reports and statements by the State agencies, Michigan Water Resources Commission, Michigan Department of Health, Conservation Department, and Economic Expansion.

    This will con- tinue until we have completed with that. We will have a discussion and a resume of the Conference at the end of all these appearances. Of course, we would like to move ahead as expeditiously as possible, but this can give you an idea of the program to expect. Before we get into the meat of the Federal report, we might take a five minute recess. Let us make it just a five minute recess. Thank you. After recess. Chairman, Conferees: I would like to proceed immediately with a presentation of the Summary, Conclusions, and Recommenda- tions of our studies that were made at the request of the Detroit conferees at the time of their meeting in March of Poston For this purpose, Mr.

    George Harlow, who has been Director since that time, will make this presentation. Vaughan will come first, and will be assisted by Mr. Harlow in pointing out some of the loca- tions on the map that we have at the right. I would like to give you Mr. Vaughan at this time. Vaughan The investigation was conducted to fill the gaps in existing technical information on water quality, sources and quantities of wastes, and the extent of pol- lution in the United States waters of the Detroit River and the Michigan waters of Lake Erie.

    The investigation was conducted in cooperation with the State regulatory agencies. The valuable assistance and special participa- tion of personnel of the Michigan Water Resources Commis- sion and Michigan Department of Health is recognized. Assistance was also rendered by the Corps of Engineers, U. Navy, who provided space for the operations. Intensive surveys were made of 6 municipal and 42 industrial waste sources to ascertain their indi- vidual contributions to the waste loadings in the waters under study.

    These surveys were joint efforts of the Project and the appropriate State regulatory agency. In the area of industrial waste surveys, Michigan Water Resources Commission personnel collected the samples and, after analysis by the Project, the Commission personnel evaluated the findings and made recommendations where appropriate. In some cases the Project personnel made additional recommendations.

    Vaughan A cooperative study was undertaken with the Michigan Department of Health and the Michigan Water Re- sources Commission to determine and compare the character- istics of overflows from combined sewers with those from separate storm sewers. Generally, laboratory procedures were per- formed in accordance with "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Eleventh Edition. The main body of this report contains a narra- tive description of all major activities of the Project, accompanied by appropriate maps, graphs, and tables.

    All tables and figures are contained in the seven sections which constitute the main body of the report. Clair to those of Lake Erie. Its average discharge, based on United States Lake Survey records through April , is , cubic feet per second. During the study period the discharge aver- aged , cubic feet per second. Vaughan follows: 1. Shipping and navigation. Tonnage shipped through the Detroit River during a recent eight-month season exceeded the entire combined tonnage shipped through the Suez and Panama Canals during an entire year.

    To maintain navigation, dredging operations are carried on in the Detroit River and Lake Erie by the U. Corps of Engineers. Major staging area for migrations of waterfowl. Estimated winter populations since ranged from a minimum of 5, in to , in There are at least 18 recrea- tional areas and 63 marine facilities in the study area. Water supply. Heavy use is made of the Detroit River for municipal and industrial water supply. The major municipal user is the City of Detroit, serving the water supply needs of over three million people both in Detroit and adjacent communities.

    Three municipal water supply intakes serving the Detroit area are located in the U. Sport Fishing. Vaughan anglers in the metropolitan area. Sales of bait, tackle, and fishing gear as well as sales and rentals of boats and motors to sportsmen constitute a business activity of considerable economic importance to the area. Description of Water Quality and Inter- ference with Water Uses Several prior investigations concerning water quality in the Detroit River have been made by government agencies and private consulting engineering firms during the last 50 years.

    Reports of these investigations show the progressive deterioration of the Detroit River water quality from headwaters to mouth due to municipal and industrial waste discharges. Comparison of waste loadings discharged to the Detroit River during the IJC survey and the Public Health Service survey reveals over 50 percent reduction in phenols, cyanide, oil, and suspended solids from industrial sources during the year period.

    The water quality of the Detroit River from its head to its junction with the old channel of the Rouge River approximately 10 miles downstream is satisfactory during dry weather conditions. Vaughan Conners Creek and midstream down to the Rouge River. From their points of discharge all types of wastes had a tendency to hug the United States or Canadian shores and then slowly extend outward into the main body of the river.

    Thus the pollution is not as great in the middle of the River. Coliform Bacterial Density. High total coliform densities, especially when accompanied by high fecal coliform densities, indicate the presence of animal including human wastes which may contain pathogenic organisms capable of causing enteric diseases in humans. The presence of these organisms above acceptable levels is a threat to the health and welfare of those who use this water for domestic water supply and recreational purposes.

    1. General and Collected Works

    A widely used standard for swimming is 1, organisms per ml. Bacterial densities differed greatly between dry and wet weather conditions. During dry conditions the geometric mean coliform density in the upper Detroit River was under organisms per ml. Below Zug Island and the Rouge River the geometric mean coliform densities increased to values exceeding 5, organisms per ml.

    Vaughan was noted at the head of the Detroit River, but below Conners Creek geometric means rose to approximately 7, per ml. During wet and dry weather almost all of the lower Detroit River has geometric mean values in excess of 2, organisms per ml. Fecal coliform ratio to or percentage of total coliforms provides additional information on water quality. The range noted during the study was 30 to 90 percent of the total coliform densities, with higher values observed in the lower Detroit River during wet conditions.

    Fecal streptococci were generally less than either total or fecal coliforms. Geometric mean densities depict only average conditions and tend to mask extremely high values. These high values can indicate significant effects on many water uses, especially those affecting human health and welfare.

    Maximum values during the survey ranged from 4, organisms per ml. Vaughan during wet and dry conditions throughout the range. At all locations from just below Belle Isle to the mouth of the Detroit River average coliform densities near the United States shore during wet conditions were 5 to 10 times higher than corresponding values during dry weather. Study of the results of sampling in the Detroit River by personnel of the City of Detroit during the past four years indicates a pronounced downward trend as evidenced by median values in coliform densities in American waters near the shore, especially during the years and Effluents from the main Detroit Sewage Treatment Plant, Wyandotte Sewage Treatment Plant, and overflows from combined sewers are significant souces of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci to the Detroit River.

    Four years of operating records of several area water and sewage treatment plants were evaluated. These records indicate a substantial reduction in monthly geometric mean coliform densities during and compared with the preceding two years, especially in the Detroit Sewage Treatment Plant effluent. A corres- ponding reduction in coliform density at the Wyandotte Water Treatment Plant was observed in these two years. Monthly geometric mean values in several Detroit River sewage treatment plant effluents indicate substantial reduction during the past few years.

    During certain months with geometric mean values under 20, organisms per ml. Such erratic control of coliform organisms is not considered unusual when chlorination is practiced following primary sewage treatment. Pollution from partially treated municipal wastes and overflows from combined sewers endangers the users of the domestic water supplies from the Wyandotte intake and, at times, users of the domestic water supplies from the Southwest intake of the City of Detroit.

    Pollu- tion from these sources also interferes with recreational uses at all times in the lower Detroit River. Pollution originating from the Detroit and Wyandotte Sewage Treat- ment plants and combined sewers along the entire shoreline of the River must be abated to improve water quality and increase the uses of the Detroit River. BOD and DO. Insufficient dissolved oxygen in water can kill fish and other aquatic life or prevent their propaga- tion. Vaughan odors and thus interfere with recreation and aesthetic enjoyment. Dissolved oxygen in the upper River is stable at 93 - percent of saturation, but gradually diminishes to an average saturation of 67 percent at the mouth in that section of the River most affected by the Trenton Channel.

    The minimum observed value during the survey was 5. While the present oxygen level in the lower Detroit River does not cause major interference with water uses, the drop from percent saturation in the upper River to 67 percent in the lower is a warning of dire consequences in the future unless appropriate action is taken and represents a threat to water uses in the De- troit River and Michigan Lake Erie.

    Suspended and Settleable Solids. Vaughan interfere with boating and aesthetic enjoyment of the water. When a part of the suspended solids settles out on stream and lake bottoms as sludge or bottom deposits, damage to aquatic life can occur since these deposits blanket the bottom, killing eggs and essential fishfood organisms and destroying spawning beds.

    When the sus- pended solids carry with them toxic material, aquatic life can be killed when the toxic materials leech out into the water above. The largest contributor of suspended and settleable solids is the Detroit Sewage Treatment Plant. The Wyandotte Chemical Company is also a significant contributor of suspended and settleable solids. Sludge banks are present and are particularly extensive near the mouth of the River as it empties into Lake Erie.

    These deposits of sludge are primarily due to suspended and settleable solids in municipal and industrial wastes discharging into the Rouge and Detroit Rivers. Vaughan unfavorable environmental conditions for the propagation of game fish. Sludge deposits along the shoreline and in marinas interfere with recreational use and the aes- thetic enjoyment of water.

    Pollution in the form of these deposits interferes with navigation, requiring annual dredging operation to maintain channels, marinas, and harbor facilities. Oil and Grease. Oil and grease were re- peatedly observed in the Detroit River. The major sources of oil are the main Detroit Sewage Treatment Plant effluent and several industrial sources. Although good oil pollution. Oil spills were observed during the study period by the Project.

    High levels of phenols in waters cause disagreeable taste and odors in drinking water, tainting of flesh in game fish, and may even result in fish kills when concentrations are excessive. Vaughan concentration to cause disagreeable tastes and odors, and expensive water treatment procedures are required to eliminate the problem. Average phenol concentrations should not exceed 2 micrograms per liter ppb and maxi- mum values should not exceed 5 micrograms per liter to prevent nuisance taste and odors in water supplies.

    Average phenol concentrations in the Detroit River increased from micrograms per liter at its head to greater than 10 micrograms per liter in the lower River, and micrograms per liter at the mouth. Average phenol concentrations at all ranges in the Detroit River exceeded recommended levels during the survey. The major sources of phenols are the main Detroit Sewage Treatment Plant effluent, which treats the wastes of numerous industries, and other industrial sources.

    Excessive phenol concentrations in the waters and bottom muds of the Detroit River taint the flesh of fish and have interfered with domestic water treatment at the Wyandotte plant. Chloride concentrations above certain levels can interfere with domestic and industrial water supplies by causing objectionable tastes in drinking water and corrosion in industrial processes.

    High values were observed in the Trenton Channel and at the mouth near the United States shore. Increases in chloride concentrations indi- cate a change in the mineral content of the Detroit River from head to mouth. Although these concentrations are not yet significant enough to cause major interference with water use, the doubling of chloride loadings in a mile stretch of the river is of concern.

    Future action may be necessary to prevent an undesirable situation. Excessive concentrations of iron in water can cause interference with domestic and industrial water supplies. Iron is toxic to certain species of fish and other aquatic life in relatively low concentrations. Iron concentrations should not exceed 0. Vaughan Average iron concentrations in the Upper Detroit River meet recommended levels, but downstream the concentrations increase to average values of 0. The iron concentration at the mouth ranges from 0. Iron concentrations in the waters and bottom muds of the Detroit River pose threats to fish and other aquatic life and represent a potential interference with industrial water supply.

    Nitrogen compounds coupled with phosphorus can act as essential nutrients causing the growth of algae in bodies of water where other environ- mental factors are satisfactory. In small quantities these algae are desirable as a major source of food for fish. When algal growth exceeds certain limits, nuisances result from the blooms. They are unsightly, can result in obnoxious odors, and some species can be toxic to fish.

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    • The level of inorganic nitrogen compounds nitrates, nitrites, and ammonia above which undesirable blooms can be expected to occur is 0. Vaughan Nitrogen compounds show a significant increase from the head to the mouth of the River. Inorganic nitro- gen nitrates, nitrites, and ammonia increased from ap- proximately 0. Ammonia increased dramatically below the Rouge River and Zug Island from a range of 0. High ammonia levels at the Wyandotte water treatment plant causing a variable chlorine demand, have necessitated greater chlorine dosages to assure a safe supply at all times.

      The presence of this material not only results in additional expense but also represents an interference with the effectiveness of chlorine in disinfecting water supplies, and thus is a hazard to the health and welfare of the users. High ammonia levels can be expected to cause similar problems at the new southwest intake operated by the City of De- troit. Essential nutrients for plant growth, in- cluding inorganic nitrogen compounds and phosphates, increase significantly from the headwaters to the mouth of the Detroit River.

      Vaughan constituents cause interference with almost all legiti- mate water uses. Soluble phosphates in relatively small concentrations are readily available as an essential plant nutrient. The insoluble portion of the total phos- phate concentration can be converted to the soluble form and thus become available for such plant utilization. Soluble phosphates present in greater concentrations than 0. Phosphates reported as phosphates increased from average values of 0. All but two soluble phosphate values in the upper Detroit River were less than 0.

      These values increased to a range of 0. Vaughan 61 from head to mouth were found to contain low numbers of planktonic algae, with counts averaging per ml. Low densities of animal plankton were also found. Plank- ton entering the river with water masses from Lake St. Glair were carried as a "standing crop" downriver to Lake Erie with little change in density or species compo- sition either vertically or horizontally across the river.

      The rate of travel is too rapid for the domestic and industrial wastes to appreciably alter the number of plankton. The bacterial slime Sphaerotilus was found, attached to bridge abutments, pilings, piers, buoys, etc. Composition of bottom organisms in the De- troit River changed from a pollution-sensitive population typically found in clean waters to a predominantly pollu- tion-tolerant population in the lower areas of the River below Zug Island and the Rouge River. This change was especially pronounced along the United States shore. In the reach of the Detroit River from Zug Island to the mouth, habitats suitable for the support of a variety of bottom organisms have been destroyed by the deposition of organic solids and oils, especially in areas nearest the Michigan shore.

      Vaughan 62 Clinging and burrowing mayfly nymphs, both pollution-sensitive organisms associated with clean bot- tom conditions, in themselves valuable as fish food, were found in the upper ranges of the Detroit River but were completely absent from the River below the Rouge River and Detroit Sewage Treatment Plant and in the entire Michigan waters of Lake Erie.

      Habitats in the lower De- troit River formerly suitable for the support of this once-abundant organism have been totally destroyed by pollution. Sources and Characteristics of Wastes A total municipal waste volume of million gallons is discharged daily into the Detroit River, con- taining the following loadings of constituents: lo Wastes equivalent in oxygen-consuming capacity to raw sewage from a population of over 3,, Innumerable coliform bacteria.

      Over 25, pounds of iron. Over , pounds of suspended solids and almost , pounds of settleable solids. Over 16, gallons of oil. Over 1, pounds of phenolic substances. Over 34, pounds of ammonia. Vaughan including 70, pounds of soluble phosphates. Over , pounds of chlorides. A total industrial waste volume of 1. Wastes having an oxygen-consuming capacity equal to raw sewage from a population of over 1,, Over 3, gallons of oil. Over , pounds of suspended solids, of which almost , are settleable.

      Over 1, pounds of phenols. Over 8, pounds of ammonia. Over 80, pounds of iron. Over 2 million pounds of chlorides. Over , pounds of acid. Vaughan, do you want these tables which follow to appear in the record? We have other tables. N, suspended solids, oil phenols, CN. Waste Treatment or Control ponds, pH monitors. NH3, cyanides none oil, toxic metal none Waste Treatment or Control lagoons neutralization.

      Storrawater Overflow Studies Studies were performed jointly with the Michigan Department of Health and the Michigan Water Re- sources Commission to compare the characteristics of discharges from the combined sewers serving the City of Detroit Conners Creek system and the separate storm sewers serving Ann Arbor, Michigan. The following is a summary of waste con- stituents found in the stormwater overflows from combined sewers: 1.

      Total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus densities many times approached values found in raw sewage. Coliform counts of over ,, organ- isms per ml were found during summer months. Lower results were found in the winter. Total coliform densities in the separate stormwater system at Ann Arbor regularly exceeded 1,, organisms per ml. Average total coliform densities from the Detroit combined system were approximately 10 times higher than those in the Ann Arbor separate system. Vaughan least twice as high. Phenol, BOD, phosphate, ammonia, and organic nitrogen concentrations were two to five times higher in the combined overflow than in separate storm discharge.

      In the Detroit area, rainfall sufficient to cause overflows from all combined sewers 0. Rainfall sufficient to cause overflows from certain parts of the system 0. Calendar year was the driest on record for the City of Detroit according to rainfall records of the U. Weather Bureau. Even during this year, the Conners Creek pumping station was observed to overflow 12 times during a 6-month period in During the first 12 months of operation of the automatic sampler, the Conners Creek installation overflowed and collected samples 23 separate times.

      Both figures exclude the period of raw sewage bypass from this station by the City of Detroit. The volume of overflow at the Detroit installation during the survey varied from 40 million gallons to million gallons. Vaughan observed during the overflow of longest duration. This volume, which originated from only 25 percent of the City of Detroit, is approximately the same as the daily discharge of partially treated sewage from all sewage treatment plants into the Detroit River. Flaps -- UP 5.

      Landing Lamps -- UP 6. Wheel Brakes -- ON 7. NOTE: Whenever possible the pilot should start the engine himself; this will ensure that he will have ample time to carry out all of the checks, and that unecessary running of the engine is avoided. Fuel Pressure -- 2. Set Altimeter and Directional Gyro 5. If it is o before the aeroplane taxies out, it will become excessive if there is any distance to taxy downwind. The engine should not idle for any length of time in a light wind, and the aircraft should always face into the wind. Ensure two men hold down the tail 8a RPM -- - 8a Use the brakes as little as possible in taxying, in order to save wear 4b.

      Do not relax throttle tension in order to prevent throttle coming back during take off 4c. A convienent catch-phrase is applied to this drill "TMP and Flaps". Flaps -- UP NOTE: The aeroplane would, however, take-off with flaps down, and if, by a serious omission of drill, the pilot leaves them down, he must on no account raise them until speed is at least mph ASI at a safe height.

      The tail need not be raised much. Hold down to almost level flight. Oil Pressure -- 60 PSI 5. Check Radiator and Oil Temperature 9. When the light comes on, release lever to IDLE position. Flaps -- UP 2. Undercarriage -- DOWN 2. PRESS -- Starter Button Until Engine is Firing Evenly NOTE: Do not oscillate the throttle lever, but open it slowly to get the engine running smootly at a fast tick-over; if the engine begins to fade, or "spit-back", close the throttle quickly and open it up again very slowly.

      Set Controls as Follows: 1a. Throttle Open Check Operation of Propellors 3. Fuel - Check Contents and Cock Settings 5. Flaps -- 20o DOWN 6. There is a Slight Tendency to Swing to the Right 2.


      Safety Speed -- MPH 4. Raise Undercarraige and Flaps 5a. Starting 2. Take-Off 3. Lower Flaps with Hand Pump 2a. Undercarraige Selector -- UP 2b. Operate Hand Pump 2d. Lower Undercarraige with Hand Pump 3a. Lower Undercarraige with Hand Pump 2a. Operate Hand Pump 3. Operate Hand Pump. Best Airspeed for Climb Sea Level m m m m m m m kph kph kph kph kph kph kph kph. Master Bus -- ON 4. Operate Center Fuel Pump to -- 0. Pull Starter Handle Propellor Pich -- 3. RPM -- - 6b. Boost -- 1. Oil Pressure -- 2. Coolant Temperature -- 94oC -- Max 6e. Oil Temperature In -- 30oC -- Min 6f. Fuel Pressure -- 1.

      Check the Engine is Running Smoothly and Evenly 9. Electronics -- ON 5. Propellor Pitch -- 7. Landing Flaps -- UP o 2. Landing Flaps -- 20 2. Take Off 3. Audible tone if landing gear is not locked down and flaps are extended. Observe Operating Limits 2. Decrease Speed to -- KPH 2. Propellor Pitch to -- 3. The plane will lose speed rapidly with a shallower angle with reduced throttle. Trim to Maintain Dive; Best Trim -- 0. Throttle -- IDLE o 3. Night Lights -- ON 2. Ensure Mask Fits Comfortably and Tight 3.

      Start Oxygen at -- m 5. Adjust Flow Lever Based on Altitude 7. Observe Oxygen Pressure Gauge 8. After Use, Close All Levers Throttle -- IDLE 2. At high altitude, it is appropriate to go a long distance, deploying landing gear and flaps below m. Electronic Circuits -- OFF 6. Ignition -- OFF 7. Lower Speed if Possible 3. Unbuckle and Exit Aircraft.

      Best Airspeed for Climb Sea Level m m m m m m m. Best Airspeed for Climb Sea Level m m m m m m m kph kph. Yeah, this section hasn't been done yet making this entire document a worthless pile of steaming dog doo. I blame bosses, Real Life, beer especially that good German stuff like Molson , and hot, humid weather. RPM -- - 5. The radiator flap should be set to fully open. Select Flaps -- UP 6. Flag for inappropriate content.